Chapter 1: Photography

 


Contents

  1. 1 Types of Films
    1. 1.1 Formalism <------------------------- Classicism------------------------------>Realism
    2. 1.2 Avant Garde<-----------------------Narrative Film----------------------->Documentary
    3. 1.3 Permutations<----- The Seventh Seal-----Forest Gump------Children of Men--------> Restrepo
  2. 2 The Six Basic Shot Types
    1. 2.1 1.) Extreme Long Shot- taken from a great distance, sometimes as far as a 1/4 of a mile away
    2. 2.2 2.) Long Shot- a range that corresponds approximately to the distance between the audience and the stage in the      live theater
    3. 2.3 3.) Full Shot- will just barely include the human body in full, with the head near the top of the frame and the        feet near the bottom
    4. 2.4 4.) Medium Shot-contains a figure from the knees or waist up
    5. 2.5 5.) Close Up- shows very little if any locale and concentrates on a relatively small object--the human face, for    example.
    6. 2.6 6.) Extreme Close Up- a variation of the close up.  Thus, instead of a face, the E.C.U. might show only a person's eyes or mouth.
  3. 3 The Five Basic Angles
    1. 3.1 1.) Overhead/Bird's Eye- one of the most disorienting angles, for it involves photographing a scene from directly overhead.
    2. 3.2 2.) High Angle- the camera is positioned from above looking down on a subject
    3. 3.3 3.) Eye Level- the camera is positioned at eye level with its subject
    4. 3.4 4.) Low Angle- the camera is positioned from below looking up on a subject
    5. 3.5 5.) Oblique/Worm's Eye- the camera is positioned extremely low looking up on a subject.  Picture a camera placed atop your shoes.
  4. 4 Three Key Lighting Levels
    1. 4.1 1.) Low Key- scenes are dimly lit with diffused shadows and/or atmospheric pools of soft light.
    2. 4.2 2.) High Key- scenes are brightly lit, with even illumination and very few conspicuous shadows. 
    3. 4.3 3.) High Contrast- scenes contain harsh shafts of lights and dramatic streaks of blackness.
  5. 5 The Color Spectrum (ROY G BIV)
    1. 5.1 Warm Tones (Red, Orange, Yellow) 
    2. 5.2 Neutral (Green)
    3. 5.3 Cool Tones (Blue, Indigo, Violet)


Types of Films

 

Classification






Film Type




Film Examples

(Click on the films to the right to view!)

Formalism <------------------------- Classicism------------------------------>Realism




Avant Garde<-----------------------Narrative Film----------------------->Documentary



Permutations<----- The Seventh Seal-----Forest Gump------Children of Men--------> Restrepo







The Six Basic Shot Types

*All elements of photography have either a practical function and/or a psychological function.  Always keep this in mind when watching a film.

1.) Extreme Long Shot- taken from a great distance, sometimes as far as a 1/4 of a mile away



2.) Long Shot- a range that corresponds approximately to the distance between the audience and the stage in the      live theater





3.) Full Shot- will just barely include the human body in full, with the head near the top of the frame and the        feet near the bottom



4.) Medium Shot-contains a figure from the knees or waist up





5.) Close Up- shows very little if any locale and concentrates on a relatively small object--the human face, for    example.



6.) Extreme Close Up- a variation of the close up.  Thus, instead of a face, the E.C.U. might show only a person's eyes or mouth.


The Five Basic Angles


1.) Overhead/Bird's Eye- one of the most disorienting angles, for it involves photographing a scene from directly overhead.




2.) High Angle- the camera is positioned from above looking down on a subject




3.) Eye Level- the camera is positioned at eye level with its subject




4.) Low Anglethe camera is positioned from below looking up on a subject



5.) Oblique/Worm's Eyethe camera is positioned extremely low looking up on a subject.  Picture a camera placed atop your shoes.


Three Key Lighting Levels


1.) Low Key- scenes are dimly lit with diffused shadows and/or atmospheric pools of soft light.



2.) High Key- scenes are brightly lit, with even illumination and very few conspicuous shadows. 






3.) High Contrast- scenes contain harsh shafts of lights and dramatic streaks of blackness.




The Color Spectrum (ROY G BIV)


Warm Tones (Red, Orange, Yellow) 



Neutral (Green)











Cool Tones (Blue, Indigo, Violet)







The American Society of Cinematographers Best 50 Shot films from 1998-2008



The Sixth Sense




Saving Private Ryan - Omaha Beach




The majority of the images on this page were downloaded from Evan E. Richards' excellent site. Click here to access.

All definitions are used from Louis Giannetti's Understanding Movies (10th Edition).